Well Water Testing

Well Water Testing

All Pro Home Inspection provides water testing.  Our inspectors can complete a simple bacteria test, FHA/VA water test along with many other water sampling needs.  If you need to have your well water tested call our office at 716-772-2548.

Private Ground Water Wells

Many people in the United States receive their water from private ground water wells. EPA regulations that protect public drinking water systems do not apply to privately owned wells. As a result, owners of private wells are responsible for ensuring that their water is safe from contaminants.

Ground Water and Wells

When rain falls, much of it is absorbed into the ground. Water that’s not used by plants moves downward through pores and spaces in the rock until it reaches a dense layer of rock. The water trapped below the ground in the pores and spaces above the dense rock barrier is called ground water, and this is the water we get when we drill wells. Another common term for ground water is “aquifer” or “ground water aquifer.”

  • According to the U.S. Census Bureau. Current Housing Reports, Over 15 million U.S. households regularly depend on private ground water wells.
  • All private wells use ground water.

Private Ground Water Well Fast Facts

  • Over 15 million U.S. households rely on private, household wells for drinking water.
  • If polluted ground water is consumed, it could cause illness. Ground water pollution can be caused by seepage through landfills, failed septic tanks, underground fuel tanks, fertilizers and pesticides, and runoff from urban areas.
  • It is important that private ground water wells are checked regularly to ensure that the water is safe for drinking.
  • Typically, private water systems that serve no more than 25 people at least 60 days of the year and have no more than 15 service connections are not regulated by the EPA.

Well Siting & Potential Contaminants

The safety and effectiveness of a well depends greatly on its location.  It is important to maintain safe distances between private ground water wells and possible sources of contamination.

Possible sources of contamination and minimum distances from wells include:

  • Septic Tanks, 50 feet from well
  • Livestock yards, Silos, Septic Leach Fields, 50 feet from well
  • Petroleum Tanks, Liquid-Tight Manure Storage and Fertilizer Storage and Handling, 100 feet from well
  • Manure Stacks, 250 feet from well

What to test for in your well

Several water quality indicators (WQIs) and contaminants that should be tested for in your water are listed below. A WQI test is a test that measures the presence and amount of certain germs in water. In most cases, the presence of WQIs is not the cause of sickness; however, they are easy to test for and their presence may indicate the presence of sewage and other disease-causing germs from human and/or animal feces. (Please see Water-related Diseases and Contaminants in Private Wells for a list of additional germs and chemicals in drinking water wells and the illnesses they cause.)

Examples of Water Quality Indicators:

Total Coliforms

Coliform bacteria are microbes found in the digestive systems of warm-blooded animals, in soil, on plants, and in surface water. These microbes typically do not make you sick; however, because microbes that do cause disease are hard to test for in the water, “total coliforms” are tested instead. If the total coliform count is high, then it is very possible that harmful germs like viruses, bacteria, and parasites might also be found in the water.

Fecal Coliforms / Escherichia coli (E. coli)

Fecal coliform bacteria are a specific kind of total coliform. The feces (or stool) and digestive systems of humans and warm-blooded animals contain millions of fecal coliforms. E. coli is part of the fecal coliform group and may be tested for by itself. Fecal coliforms and E. coli are usually harmless. However, a positive test may mean that feces and harmful germs have found their way into your water system. These harmful germs can cause diarrhea, dysentery, and hepatitis. It is important not to confuse the test for the common and usually harmless WQI E. coli with a test for the more dangerous germ E. coli O157:H7.


The pH level tells you how acidic or basic your water is. The pH level of the water can change how your water looks and tastes. If the pH of your water is too low or too high, it could damage your pipes, cause heavy metals like lead to leak out of the pipes into the water, and eventually make you sick.

Examples of Contaminants:


Nitrate is naturally found in many types of food. However, high levels of nitrate in drinking water can make people sick. Nitrate in your well water can come from animal waste, private septic systems, wastewater, flooded sewers, polluted storm water runoff, fertilizers, agricultural runoff, and decaying plants. The presence of nitrate in well water also depends on the geology of the land around your well. A nitrate test is recommended for all wells. If the nitrate level in your water is higher than the EPA standards, you should look for other sources of water or ways to treat your water.

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

VOCs are industrial and fuel-related chemicals that may cause bad health effects at certain levels. Which VOCs to test for depends on where you live. Contact your local health or environmental department, or the EPA to find out if any VOCs are a problem in your region. Some VOCs to ask about testing for are benzene, carbon tetrachloride, toluene, trichloroethylene, and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE).

Other germs or harmful chemicals that you should test for will depend on where your well is located on your property, which state you live in, and whether you live in an urban or rural area. These tests could include testing for lead, arsenic, mercury, radium, atrazine, and other pesticides. You should check with your local health or environmental department, or the EPA to find out if any of these contaminants are a problem in your region.

Please remember that if your test results say that there are germs or chemicals in your water, you should contact your local health or environmental department for guidance in interpreting the test.

When to have your well tested

At a minimum, check your well every spring to make sure there are no mechanical problems; test it once each year for total coliform bacteria, nitrates, total dissolved solids, and pH levels. If you suspect other contaminants, you should test for those as well. However, spend time identifying potential problems as these tests can be expensive. The best way to start is to consult a local expert, such as the local health department, about local contaminants of concern. You should also have your well tested if:

There are known problems with well water in your area

  • You have experienced problems near your well (i.e., flooding, land disturbances, and nearby waste disposal sites)
  • You replace or repair any part of your well system
  • You notice a change in water quality (i.e., taste, color, odor)

Who should test your well

A qualified professional how is familiar with well water collection should be the only person collecting the water samples.  Afterward state approved laboratories should analyze the water samples.  State and local health or environmental departments often test for nitrates, total coliforms, fecal coliform, volatile organic compounds, and pH.

Water-related Diseases and Contaminants in Private Wells

Over 15 million U.S. households obtain their drinking water from private wells, which are not covered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations that protect public drinking water systems. Although the United States has one of the safest drinking water supplies in the world, sources of drinking water can still become contaminated through naturally occurring chemicals and minerals (for example, arsenic, radon), local land use practices (for example, pesticides, chemicals, animal feeding operations), malfunctioning wastewater treatment systems (for example, sewer overflows), and other sources. Contamination of a private well can impact not only the household served by the well, but also nearby households using the same aquifer.

Owners of private wells are responsible for ensuring that their water is safe from contaminants. Private wells should be checked every year for mechanical problems, cleanliness, and the presence of coliform bacteria, nitrates, and any other contaminants of local concern. A local health department or water well systems professional can help ensure delivery of high-quality water from an existing well or, if needed, help locate and construct a new well in a safer area. Additional information about well maintenance and water testing is available at Healthy Water’s Well Testing page.

The presence of contaminants in water can lead to health issues, including gastrointestinal illness, reproductive problems, and neurological disorders. Infants, young children, pregnant women, the elderly, and people whose immune systems are compromised because of AIDS, chemotherapy, or transplant medications, may be especially susceptible to illness from some contaminants.

The Top 5 Causes of Waterborne Outbreaks in Private Groundwater Wells:

  1. Hepatitis A
  2. Giardia intestinalis
  3. Shigella spp.
  4. coli 0157:H7
  5. Tied for 5th:
    Campylobacter jejuni and
    Salmonella serotype Typhimurium

More well water-related pathogens and chemicals:

  • Arsenic Copper
  • Cryptosporidium
  • Enterovirus
  • Lead
  • Nitrate
  • Norovirus
  • Radon
  • Rotavirus

For more water-related diseases, see CDC Healthy Water’s Diseases Contaminants.

Well Treatment

Treatment of Well Water

There are many different treatment options for the treatment of well waters. No single treatment type will protect against all problems. For related treatment information , see the CDC Well Treatment page.  Many well owners use a home water treatment unit to:

  • Remove specific contaminants
  • Take extra precautions because a household member has a compromised immune system
  • Improve the taste of drinking water

Household water treatment systems are composed of two categories: point-of-use and point-of-entry. Point-of-entry systems are typically installed after the water meter and treat most of the water entering a residence. Point-of-use systems are systems that treat water in batches and deliver water to a tap, such as a kitchen or bathroom sink or an auxiliary faucet mounted next to a tap.

The most common types of household water treatment systems consist of:

Filtration Systems

A water filter is a device which removes impurities from water by means of a physical barrier, chemical, and/or biological process.

Water Softeners

A water softener is a device that reduces the hardness of the water. A water softener typically uses sodium or potassium ions to replace calcium and magnesium ions, the ions that create “hardness.”

Distillation Systems

Distillation is a process in which impure water is boiled and the steam is collected and condensed in a separate container, leaving many of the solid contaminants behind.


Disinfection is a physical or chemical process in which pathogenic microorganisms are deactivated or killed. Examples of chemical disinfectants are chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone. Examples of physical disinfectants include ultraviolet light, electronic radiation, and heat.

In order to determine the best treatment option, contact a water well systems contractor.

Well Maintenance

Overview of Maintenance

Regular maintenance of your well is required to ensure the continued safety of your water and to monitor for the presence of any contaminants. The National Ground Water Association provides information to help you schedule a well water checkup , or you can learn “How to Get Information on Wells Where You Live

According to the National Ground Water Association, here are some steps you can take to help protect your well:

  • Wells should be checked and tested ANNUALLY for mechanical problems, cleanliness, and the presence of certain contaminants, such as coliform bacteria, nitrates/nitrites, and any other contaminants of local concern, (for example, arsenic and radon).
  • Well water should be tested more than once a year if there are recurrent incidents of gastrointestinal illness among household members or visitors and/or a change in taste, odor, or appearance of the well water.
  • All hazardous materials, such as paint, fertilizer, pesticides, and motor oil, should be kept far away from your well.
  • When mixing chemicals, do not put the hose inside the mixing container, as this can siphon chemicals into a household’s water system.
  • Consult a professional contractor to verify that there is proper separation between your well, home, waste systems, and chemical storage facilities.
  • Always check the well cover or well cap to ensure it is intact. The top of the well should be at least one foot above the ground.
  • Once your well has reached its serviceable life (usually at least 20 years), have a licensed or certified water well driller and pump installer decommission the existing well and construct a new well.

The above information was collected from the National Ground Water Association, Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the EPA.